The installation of the building supports plays a very important and sometimes paramount role. After all, the main task of the support is a long-term retention without defects, destruction and deflection of structural load. On the supports are all the bearing walls of the building, roof and floors. The most high-quality and wear-resistant supports are structures made of metal or reinforced concrete, wooden supports are considered less stable. But the advantage of wood in the production of building supports is that this material has a low thermal conductivity.
Types of buildings
There are many options for building support, among them:
- brick poles of rectangular masonry (only high-grade brick is used), to reinforce the structure reinforced with steel mesh or cage corners);
- reinforced concrete columns (prefabricated) in height from 1 to 2 floors with special protrusions for fastening bolts;
- asbestotsementnye pillars of pipes, where the cavity is filled with monolithic concrete (serves to withstand heavy loads);
- beams of different materials;
- Runs - are represented by horizontal bearing structures of overlappings, accepting loading both vertical, and the horizontal plan. Runs are usually based on special reinforced concrete pillows in brickwork and have a T-shaped, as well as rectangular cross-section;
- pylons - in modern type construction there are rectangular shaped reinforced concrete columns with a slightly elongated cross-section across with a certain aspect ratio.
Many people are faced with the fact that in case of inaccurate calculation in the construction estimate, deformation or sagging (deflection) of the ceilings and floors occurs several years after the installation of the building supports. Nobody, of course, wants to dismantle the building and erect the building again. And to correct such shortcomings is quite laborious, but possible.
Proper use of supports
In order not to find out a few years after the construction of defects in sagging and deflection, it is necessary to annually inspect the beams and supporting structures. For example, wooden supports are often prone to decay and faster than all other materials become unusable. The process of decay is most often localized at the ends of a wooden beam, where it joins a wall (such a joint is called a fulcrum). Get to these places in the wall, you can only dismantle the floor or ceiling, respectively. Tapping the support will show you the places where the tree has a defect or rotten (a dull, muffled sound is typical for this).
If the defect is found, it is time to eliminate it, by strengthening the support. At first all the rot is scraped off completely, and a healthy fiber is impregnated with antiseptic paste. After that, the beam is fixed with temporary elements (supports, frames). Strengthening the support is carried out with the help of overlays of additional value directly on the bar itself. The final stage is the lining of the beam with mineral wool or felt. As a result, the bearing capacity of the repaired support is more than doubled.
To reinforce metal supports, steel fasteners are usually used - these are reinforcement, channel bars or a large diameter profile that is placed on the sides of the bearing element.
To visually imagine what a support installation is and the main operational problems, you can view the video