The ramp is a platform located at a certain angle to communicate two surfaces that are at different levels relative to the ground. In general, this design has become widespread in homes and other facilities for the movement of wheelchair users. A ramp is also called a road surface, connecting several floors between each other in multi-level parking lots and garages.
What are the ramps for disabled people
Depending on the field of application and patency, the ramps may have different structural features. There are the following types of these structures:
- Roll ramps
Stationary ramps, as their name implies, should be installed once for a long time, and do not allow their dismantling. There are two-span and one-span variations. The first is structurally two platforms, the distance between which is a bit narrower than the space between the wheels of a wheelchair. In the middle there are steps for the transporting person to move the disabled more conveniently. The second type is designed for independent movement of a person in a stroller.
Stationary structures can be used in residential buildings, government offices, subways and subways. In the role of the coating, which moves the wheelchair, tiles, asphalt, concrete, metal and other materials are used, suitable for reliable adhesion to rubber wheels.
Folding or retractable ramps, in a sense, can also be called stationary, because they are constantly in one place. Simply in case of need, they turn around and come to operational readiness, in the combined state they do not interfere with the passage of people. These structures are installed in residential buildings and other structures, where because of a lack of free space, installation of stationary sites is impossible.
The most popular models of folding ramps are a construction that is supported on a wall or railings and, if necessary, reclining on a step. People with disabilities without someone else's help can throw back the ramp, which is hinged from below, and carry out the ascent or descent. Basically, such designs are made of light metal alloys, providing high strength, but without causing difficulties for their movement.
Video about the flap:
There is a separate category of ramps, called removable, including several varieties of these devices. Roll ramps are one of the most popular types used to transport disabled people in any conditions. This design represents several segments connected to each other and capable of rolling down and being fixed in rolls. Due to this ability, such ramps do not require special conditions for storage and transportation.
Sliding and telescopic ramps also do not take up much space in the folded position, and can be used to overcome small obstacles such as curbs, staircases and so on. These devices are made of alloys of strong metal, and can withstand heavy loads, when folded they do not deform under the weight of up to 400 kg.
Ramps are devices for overcoming small elevations, such as a threshold, curb or other protrusion of insignificant height. Increasingly, they began to make folding ramps, convenient for transportation. Convenient design solutions allow you to assemble and disassemble the device by yourself.
What you need to know to install a ramp
Before making a decision to install a ramp in your house, you need to coordinate the construction with the house management. It should not interfere with the free movement of other residents of the house, do not spoil the appearance of the entrance and meet all the requirements of GOST, imposed on such devices. It is necessary to adhere to the following rules when choosing one of the types of ramp:
- It is necessary to take into account the design features of a wheelchair. This applies only to the site arrangement for one or more specific people.
- The construction should not interfere with the movement of residents and not be dangerous for them
- Details of self-made ramps should not extend beyond the structure, so as not to cause injuries and injuries to residents
- It is necessary to choose the right material from which the ramp will be made. If it is too heavy and hard, then this can cause rapid deterioration of the steps
- Rails must be equipped with special rubber pads to avoid wheel slippage
- The design should be equipped with special noise-absorbing and damping devices (dampers)
High requirements are also imposed on the quality of handrails. They must be made of strong materials, which ensure a long service life. The shape of the handle should be as comfortable as possible for a hand grip. The edges are made in such a way as to avoid injury to them, i.e. either round off at the ends, or bend downward or to the side opposite to the person.
The ramp with your own hands
Often there are situations where numerous requests and requirements for installing a ramp in your home are not crowned with success, in which case the only way to make the life of a wheelchair user easier will be an independent ramp installation. This process can be divided into the following stages:
- Removed all the necessary sizes. In some cases, the installation of the ramp will be impractical, and therefore illegal. To these cases, it is possible to include a too large angle of lifting steps, in which it will be impossible to move a disabled person, as well as a barrier height of less than 4 cm.
- If the ramp is installed in a house where there are areas between stairways, then their area should be enough to turn the stroller
- One of the ramp types is selected, taking into account the structural features of the building and other factors
- A clear draft of the ramp is carried out, where all dimensions, materials and fasteners are indicated
- Preparation of the territory where the installation will be carried out
- Assembling the ramp in accordance with the drawings
- Installation, if necessary painting
- Verification of compliance with all requirements, testing
Naturally, an independent assembly of the ramp requires certain knowledge and skills. The non-compliance of the design with the requirements of GOST can lead to countless fines and complaints of tenants at home. Therefore, as an option, you can use removable ramps, which do not require a fixed installation, and can easily be transported together with the stroller.