Until recently, most of the basement premises were planned in such a way that the entrance to the basement under the house was outside the residential area of the premises. Today, with the advent of new materials, it became possible to make the hatch in the basement practically tight and barely noticeable, which means that the basement room was made easier and cheaper, and the main thing is that the dungeon became more convenient at times because it can be done without leaving home.
The design of the hatch in the basement
In the device of a floor hatch there is nothing unusual, from analogous warehouse or garage designs it differs only by external furnish and quality of fits of details. But still, in the course of planning a home hatch to the basement with your own hands, before starting work, you need to think over several basic details:
- Determine the location of the hatch;
- Calculate the dimensions of the floor opening;
- Choose a reliable design of hinges and gas stops;
- To choose a way of fastening of a decorative furnish on an external surface in unison with a floor covering in a room.
Most often, when arranging the entrance to the basement, a so-called elevator hatch is used, in the construction of which the lid is opened by an electric drive or by hands. This scheme of layout and fastening of the lid proved to be the most convenient and reliable:
In addition to the single-winged scheme, there are double-winged and sliding hatches, but similar solutions for home floor systems have been less convenient. Therefore, such floor hatches in the basement are used only in cases where it is required to build an entrance to the basement room of increased size.
If you do not do this, eventually the hatch cover will ask about the level of the floor covering, this place will become a dirt collector and a hindrance for normal use of the room. In addition, for certain types of flooring, the high rigidity of the cover of the floor hatch is the main condition for laying the lining.
Decorating the floor hatch in the basement under the tile with your own hands
The scheme of arrangement of a floor hatch practically does not differ from coverings from a laminate or a parquet. To lay out the outer surface of the lid with ceramic tiles, it is necessary that the base under the lining has the same characteristics as the rest of the floor. In addition, the horizontal level of the lid in the closed state must coincide with the horizon of the concrete floor screed.
The cover frame and the hatch frame of the floor hatch are made of a durable steel corner. The lower part is welded with a steel sheet, and steel reinforcement is welded inside the cover frame.
During the concreting, the steel frame is installed on the embedded elements at the entrance to the basement. After laying the tiles on the floor, the hatch cover is installed on the hinges and filled with concrete mix in the level so that after the shrinkage of the mortar it is possible to lay the lining exactly according to the size and pattern of the floor covering.
The design of the hatch turns out to be heavy, therefore the gas stops are mounted on the frame, and the seal is made of foamed polypropylene or soft rubber along the contour.
Options for arranging a floor hatch in the house
First of all, the floor hatch should be easy to use. When opening the lid of the entrance to the cellar, the sash should not remain in a neutral, unbalanced position. If the floor hatch is not equipped with gas stops, the probability of a lid falling and injury is increased by an order of magnitude.
Location of the floor hatch in the house
The place for installing the entrance to the cellar or cellar is selected based on the structure and orientation of the basement under the house. The most convenient is the move along the step ladder of two marches.
In this case, you can get into the basement without much trouble even for the elderly or with a heavy burden in your hands. With this arrangement, the hatch is made in elongated rectangular shape and is carried out under a wall, for example, into a hallway or kitchen. Such an arrangement of the floor hatch can be considered ideal:
- Entrance to the basement is maximum size, which is very important when loading or unloading products in boxes or boxes;
- Since the place of the lid of the lid in the floor covering is displaced under the wall, the hatch in the closed and open position absolutely does not interfere with the normal walk and use the hallway;
- Such a construction does not weaken the strength of the bearing beams - a log under the wooden floor. Placement of the entrance and the floor hatch in the center of the wooden floor always requires the installation of a box or cross-section of the bar to prevent the lag from tipping over.
For a small cellar or cellar, built under the tiled kitchen floor or dining room for the storage of perishable food, wine, fruit, the staircase with a screw and a round transparent hatch, as in the photo, are best suited.
For a wooden floor or a laminate floor, the floor hatch is always made invisible, that is, in the tone of the color and the pattern of the entire floor.
In a wooden oak floor in a country house or a country house, the floor hatch can be made deliberately rough, knocked out of the board and fastened with classic forged loops of black metal. Of course, because of such a device, the lid should be located away from the entrance areas of the room and the house.
Fittings for floor hatch
The most important and loaded element of the entrance to the basement are the hinges on which the hatch is hung. When you step on the lid, half of the load falls on the hanging suspension.
For ordinary in size and thickness of the lids closing the entrance to the basement, ordinary door hinges will suffice, but they should be set in such a way that the hinge axles remain recessed into the "body" of the lid.
For heavy and thick structures it is recommended to use luggage sheds from a car. Such a device hanging the floor hatch in the root changes the trajectory of the lid. Opening and closing is very smooth and precise at the place of landing on the frame.
The second most important element is the lifting electric drive. To understand the importance and benefit of using an electric hoist, it is enough to descend at least once to the basement through a wide manhole with a massive lid and try to close the hatch with one hand. Not only is it worth while standing on the stairs, uncomfortable and hard, the lid can injure a person at the most inopportune moment.
For children and senior citizens, lifting a heavy gate sometimes becomes an impossible task, so installing an electric drive will be very useful and necessary. The construction itself can be made by hand or bought in ready-made form.
In most cases, a hatch or loop is necessary for the hatch, with which the lid can be safely raised to the working position. Most often use a handle-key or a folding metal loop. Such devices are very reliable and unpretentious in operation, unlike beautiful lock mechanisms, similar to what is shown in the photo.
The design of the hatch should be as simple and durable as possible. Every day dozens of times on the cover will come, drop objects, the castle and cracks will get dust and debris. If the hatch and the manhole in the cellar are installed in the kitchen, then detergents and water can be ruled out. All this suggests that, even if you do not use the entrance to the basement, still periodically the hatch cover will have to be opened, cleaned, lubricated, and repaired from time to time. Only then the floor system will last several decades.
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