Centralized water supply is not in every house. If everything is clear with apartment buildings, then not all private houses and villas boast a water supply system. But, without water, such owners do not do, they extract drinking water on their own. Wells or wells are used for this purpose. They are the source of drinking water. However, how safe is it?
Guarantees that any groundwater is completely safe is simply not there. After all, no one will argue with the fact that in groundwater there may be impurities of heavy metals. The most common of these is iron. Very often you can meet the question: the water from the well with iron, what to do? It is on him that we will try to answer in full. Next will be considered the permissible standards of iron, which is contained in water, what is fraught with an increased concentration of iron in water for humans and how to deal with this problem.
How much iron should be contained in water
The well-known fact that iron is an element that is even necessary for the vital activity and functioning of the human body. After all, only the blood of a mature person has about 5 g of iron. The peculiarity of iron is that it is poorly excreted from the body, this process is rather slow. For example, the walls of the intestine can produce no more than 10 mg of iron within 24 hours.
In this regard, the data were derived that say that for a man the permissible iron norm per day is 6-10 mg. And if we talk about women, the norms for them are slightly higher. This is due to additional blood loss. Therefore, the daily intake of iron is 12-18 mg. Proceeding from these data, the conclusion arises that it is quite simple to calculate the optimal amount of iron contained in water. Since a person needs to drink about 2 liters of water a day, it would seem easy to understand what iron content is acceptable. But there is one problem: water is not the only source of iron that we consume per day. You will be surprised, but a lot of iron, namely 90%, we get from food.
What can we say about the permissible norm of iron in water? In fact, WHO (the World Health Organization) has not found and has not established a certain percentage of this metal in the liquid. As experts of some organizations say, the data that would have testified about the negative effect of iron on the human body are not completely collected. However, there is a certain sanitary norm, which states that the iron content in water should not exceed 0.3 mg / l. And the most ridiculous thing is that it was established not by medical criteria, but purely by taste.
The daily level of iron, carried by man
Despite all of the above, WHO studies have not been in vain. They were able to determine how much iron in the water the body can tolerate. According to the data, the PSP (the tolerated daily intake level) of iron is 0.8 mg per 1 kg of mass in 24 hours. This already allows for some calculations.
For example, if you take an average person who weighs 75 kg, then his weight allows him to consume not more than 60 mg of iron in 24 hours. But, this is when he will not eat, but only drink water. This, of course, is impossible. Since we get 10% of the total iron from the water, and 90% of the food, the permissible concentration of iron in water is 2-3 mg / l.
According to WHO experts, a person who consumes water with an iron content of less than 3 mg / l will not feel any changes in his body. Although there is a big disadvantage here: let the liquid and do no harm, it will not be very pleasant to drink, because it does not taste very good. When your water from a well has such indicators or even higher, then you need to do something about it.
How iron affects human health
To understand why it is so important to purify water from a well from iron, it is necessary to understand the consequences of taking such water. Nobody will deny that health is the most precious thing that we have. Therefore, nobody consciously wants to worsen it. What will happen when the iron in the water from the well exceeds the value of 3 mg / l?
To begin with, the glut of iron leads to the replacement of other useful substances, namely copper, calcium, zinc and others. And this brings with it other problems. Here is a list of what can happen to a person who drinks such water from a well:
- The liver will increase in size.
- Memory gradually deteriorate, like concentration.
- The skin becomes irritated, and a touch will cause unpleasant sensations. Skin and mucous membranes can turn yellow a little.
- Morphological composition of blood due to iron in water from the well will slowly change.
- A person will begin to lose weight, become pale, quickly tired and have weakness.
- A good heart rhythm is broken.
- It is dispensed with without stomach disorders and inflammation of the digestive system as a whole.
- Disorders of the thyroid gland.
And taking into account the fact that the body with difficulty withdraws iron, year-round use of this water will lead to subsidence of the element in the most important organs of the body. Kidneys, liver, heart, intestines, lungs and pancreas - they will primarily suffer from iron. A person by the age of 50 will have nerve pathologies, diabetes, poor mental performance and unsatisfactory joint work. If there is such water in your well or well, you need to do something about it. And how, in general, to determine the level? Let's find out.
Determine the permissible amount of iron
The sources of metal in water are iron ore (brown, magnetic and red). Understand that water with a lot of iron can be to taste, but it is much more effective to do it in the laboratory.
To do this, it will be necessary to collect liquid from the well and carry it to the laboratory that is engaged in this work. It is clear that this procedure is not free, but when it comes to health, you can not spare money. The data will help you decide on the method of struggle.
And for the analysis to really show the correct data, you need to follow certain rules when taking water from a well:
- in no case can not use metal containers. It should be plastic or glass;
- there is an option of using a bottle of mineral water. Tara from sweet can not be used, as dyes and preservatives in the composition settle on the walls, and even hot water can not wash them off;
- the maximum permissible tare size is 1.5 liters;
- a glass bottle before use is caressed in hot water (preferably in boiling water), a plastic bottle in a hot. Then it is washed with liquid from the well. The use of chemicals is unacceptable;
- Before filling the water from the well, let it drain for 5 minutes. This will remove impurities and metal, located on the inner walls of water pipes;
- water dial a trickle to close in time. It is important not to let oxygen get inside. Before tightening the lid, you can press the bottle to let the air out;
- left to wrap the bottle in a bag and deliver it to the laboratory for 2-3 hours. If you do not do it now, you can keep the water in the refrigerator for 2 days.
There are some indirect signs that speak about the increased concentration of iron in the borehole. The main one is taste. When after the intake of water in the mouth there is an unpleasant metallic aftertaste, this is a clear signal of a large amount of iron. The second obvious sign is the color of the water from the well. It will be closer to brown and yellow, not transparent. Although everything depends on the shape of the iron content.
And, you can notice a rusty coating on the metal utensils. With all these signs, you can not go to the laboratory. Now that everything is clear, it's time to start solving the problem with elevated iron in the well. It's impossible to live without a well, and it's dangerous to drink iron water. We will look at two ways to solve the problem.
Using a filter to clean water from iron
The iron water of the well can be cleaned automatically, without the participation of tenants. But, for this you need to spend. Although, as we said, health, for no money you can not buy. Therefore, the purchase of a reverse osmosis filter for a well will be justified.
After all, it is clear that nothing can be done with the well. But the iron can be removed from the water. An alternative is the installation of ion-exchange cartridges. They are installed at the entrance of the pipeline into the room. The inner walls are covered with an oxidizing composition. And this means that as the water passes through the cartridge, the iron begins to react at the chemical level. After all, bivalent iron is most often in boreholes. During this chemical reaction, a solid precipitate appears, which collects the water filter.
However, the most effective method to combat elevated iron levels in the water from the well is the installation of an expensive reverse osmosis system. It consists of three or more filters. In addition, they are equipped with a semipermeable membrane, which filters the water. The advantage of this type of filter is that it is able to purify the liquid not only from iron, but also from other negative impurities. The output is perfectly clean water from the well.
Another method is the water aeration system. It is used to remove ferric iron. The aeration system is a large open reservoir in which water is stored and settled for some time. This is necessary for the oxidation of iron and its precipitation. And to accelerate this process, air is passed through the compressor into the water tank. At the output, suitable water with a minimum percentage of iron is obtained. It is recommended to use a similar system at a metal concentration of 10 to 20 mg / l.
We clean water from iron by ourselves
If such options for water treatment seem to you costly, then there are alternative, simple methods to combat elevated iron content. They are more accessible and can reduce the concentration to normal levels. We can say that the methods, in fact, are based on previous ones.
For example, the aeration method is performed on a smaller scale with a simple bucket. All that is needed is to draw water from the well, leave it to be cut off for a day. Then time will do its job. Iron, under the influence of oxygen, will oxidize and settle on the bottom. You will only need to gently drain this top layer, not stirring up the sediment with iron. This simple and inexpensive method will reduce the concentration of iron in the water from the well as much as 4 times.
But, this is far from all options. Still it is possible to resort to such tricks:
- Freezing water from the well. The method is also simple and does not require monetary costs. All you need is plastic bottles and a freezer. It is enough to fill the plastic container with water and freeze it. It remains to wait until most of the water becomes ice, and the remainder to drain. It is he who will have all the negative components. And if the remaining part is thawed, you will have to throw out the ice, which will be the last.
- Using schungite and silicon. These materials have the property of purifying water and disinfecting it. It is enough to put them on the bottom of the container with water. After that, you need to stand the water for 48 hours and drain only the top layer. There will be a sediment below.
- Ordinary coal. Everyone knows the filtering ability of coal. It effectively cope with the purification of water. You will have a kind of analog filter yourself. It is enough to take the coal, wrap it in a thick layer of cotton wool and let the water through it.
All these methods are effective. Therefore, if there is a lot of iron in the water from the well, resort to one of them. Which one to choose is up to you. You can experiment and combine them to find out which one works best.
Water is our everything. A person is 80% water. And if he can live without food for several weeks, he will not last for several days without water. That's why we need to pay special attention to what we drink. Water quality should be good. Therefore, owners of wells and wells need to constantly monitor the composition of the liquid. High iron content does not contribute to your health, but, on the contrary, it will only worsen it. We examined what this might lead to. Therefore, you need to think about the methods of struggle and draw conclusions. Then the water from the well will not cause deterioration of health.
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