When installing a warm water floor, it is necessary to lay a lot of pipes. They are segments, called contours. Each of them is connected to a device that dispenses heat carrier. This device is a collector for a warm water floor. There are several types of such devices. Each of these devices should be considered separately.
Types and purposes
In the warm floor system there are many contours. The heat carrier for heating a comfortable floor temperature is heated to 35-40 degrees. Usually gas boilers work in this mode. The remaining heaters heat the water to high temperatures. However, with a strong heating of the coolant, movement along the floor will be uncomfortable. For this purpose, collectors are used.
They are special mixers. They receive hot and cold water. They are mixed, which makes it possible to get the optimal temperature at the inlet to the circuit. Mixing of water is carried out in the required proportions.
Water flows evenly into all contours. For this, a comb is used. It has only 1 input and several output channels. Such a device is capable of collecting cooled water, which passed along the contours. Then the cooled coolant is sent to the boiler. There are 2 types of combs - return and feed. Also, the device can be equipped with a sub-assembly.
Collectors for the water-heated floor are made using different materials. The main among them are:
- Stainless steel. Such collectors have high strength. However, they are very expensive.
- Polypropylene. These products are among the cheapest. They are designed to work with a medium-temperature coolant.
- Brass. Refers to the average price category. If you use a high-quality alloy, such devices can last long enough.
During installation, the inputs of the contours of the warm floor are connected to the manifold supply manifold. The outlets of the loops are connected to the return comb. They are connected in pairs.
When installing a water heating system, you must perform all contours of the same size. This is done so that each loop has the same heat transfer. However, this option is rare. Often loops have significant differences in length.
To equalize the heat transfer of the circuits, you need to install flowmeters on the comb, which supplies the coolant. On the return valve is installed. Flowmeters are devices that have a cover with divisions. In them there is a float, marking, at what speed there is a movement of water in a certain loop.
The smaller the volume of coolant passed through a certain circuit, the lower the temperature in the room. To adjust the temperature mode, you must change the flow rate of each circuit. This work is done manually. For this special valves are designed.
The flow rate changes when the knob is turned. For a simpler orientation during assembly of the mixer assembly, the contours should be signed.
This option is optimal, however, the flow and temperature are adjusted by hand. This option is not always convenient. To automate the adjustment, servo drives are installed on the inputs. Such devices function together with thermostats installed in the room.
The mixer system is designed as a three-way and two-way valve. If the heating system is mixed, it has warm floors and a heating device (eg radiator). With such a device, there is a circulation pump in the unit. For a normal running of the heating medium through all the loops of the system, you need to install 2 pumps. With this structure, the group is called a pumping-mixing unit.
The collector circuit on the three-way valve
The three-way valve is a device that mixes hot and cooled water. It is fed cooled coolant from the pipeline and heated - from the boiler.
Inside this valve is placed a moving sector, through which the flow of water of different temperatures is regulated. The sector is controlled by a thermal relay. Also, the signal to it can come from the thermostat.
The mixing unit, which has a three-way valve, is quite simple. The return and hot water are connected to the valve outputs. In addition, the output of the feed comb is fed to them. After the valve, a pump is installed, pushing water onto the feed comb.
The device operates in this way:
- A heated coolant begins to flow from the boiler. First it passes through the valve without a mix.
- Information from the temperature sensor on the valve is about excessive water heating. Then the admixture of cooled coolant is opened, which comes from the return flow.
- Thus, the system functions until the water temperature drops to a certain value.
- After that, the three-way valve closes the access of cold water.
- In this state, the system will operate until the water again acquires an overestimated temperature. In this case, the admixture will reappear.
Such an algorithm is simple enough. However, such a scheme has one serious drawback. There is a possibility that in the event of a failure, there will be no water. This threatens to destroy the pipes.
Manifold on two-way valve
The two-way valve is set to flow from the boiler equipment. The balancing valve is mounted on a bridge, which is located between the return and the pipeline that supplies water. Such a device is adjustable. It can be set to reduce or raise the water temperature in the system. The balancing valve determines how much cooler is supplied to the system.
The two-way valve must be installed with a temperature sensor. It is placed a field of the pump, which "presses" the water in the direction of the comb. Only with such a device scheme, the intensity of feeding the heated heating medium can be changed.
If there is a device for such a scheme, the cooled coolant water is always mixed. Therefore, the hot water that comes from the boiler can not get into the circuits. This scheme ensures greater reliability of the water floor system. However, similar groups of mixers can only heat - 150-200 square meters. square meters. Valves, which would be more productive, does not exist.
Valve selection according to characteristics
Each collector, regardless of its type, has certain indicators. Among them is to allocate bandwidth and productivity. Due to such quantities, it is possible to determine the amount of water that a valve is able to pass through itself in a certain period of time. Typically, productivity is expressed in cubic meters per hour or liters per minute.
Also, when planning the system, it is necessary to calculate the capacity of the pipes. In addition, the hydraulic resistance and other parameters are taken into account. When assembling the collector, one should rely on such data:
- Valves having a flow rate of less than 2 cu. m / h, able to ensure the normal functioning of the floor area of 50 to 100 square meters. m.
- With a performance of 2 to 4 cu. m / h such devices are installed on systems with a floor area of not more than 200 square meters. m.
- To ensure the floor works on an area of more than 200 square meters. m, will have to choose products with a capacity of more than 4 cu. m. However, 2 knot nodes are often performed.
As materials from which collectors are made, brass and stainless steel act. It is better to choose products only from proven manufacturers.
Also worth paying attention to one more characteristic - the limit of adjusting the water temperature. Typically, the characteristics of various devices contain the minimum and maximum temperature.
Location and installation
It is better to mount the collector in enclosed cabinets made of metal. The location for such structures is selected in accordance with the location of the elements of the water floor. If the heating system has several branches, it is better to install the cabinet at the same distance from each circuit. With this arrangement of the mixer, the overall performance of the system is assured.
Ideally, if the collector is placed in a thick wall, to which you can pipe. In the case of laying warm water floors throughout the apartment, it must be distributed to individual units and installed in lockers.
If you do not equip the floor with a collector
Water-floor systems may not be equipped with mixers. To install such a product, you need to prepare a boiler, pipeline, pump and three-way valve. Some craftsmen try to connect their warm floor with central heating. However, this approach is not only prohibited by the corresponding GOSTs, but it can also lead to deplorable consequences. At the device of such floor it is possible to flood the and the next apartments. Also, such actions may be fined.
The pipeline can be connected with a snake or snail. Such circuits without a manifold have a double pipeline. They have 2 parallel loops - the return and the feed. The advantages of "snake" include the possibility of distributing the heating zone manually. If a snail is used, the coolant will be evenly distributed throughout the system.
When installing a water-heated floor, a powerful boiler should be installed. It is necessary that it works stably and without failures. Boilers that run on gas and electricity are not much different. The main thing is that its power is in accordance with the characteristics of the warm floor. If the system is not equipped with a collector, it is necessary to connect a pump to it. This will ensure a normal circulation of water through the pipes.
Collectors are special devices in which the coolant is mixed. This ensures the optimum temperature of the water floor. There are several types of such devices. When choosing it is worth paying attention to two-way systems. They are more reliable. Also it is necessary to choose collectors by the manufacturer. This will help to choose a durable and stable assembly for the water-floor system.
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