Brick laying is always carried out in accordance with certain rules. The most important thing in the process is strength. There are several types of laying bricks. Each species has its own peculiarities and subtleties, which must be taken into account when erecting a particular building or structure.
Types of bricks used in construction
To date, the industry produces a large number of different types of bricks. Each of them is applicable at various construction sites. You need to know the most important points to choose a particular type of material and get to work.
The brick can be full-bodied, produced by plastic pressing. This type of material is dense enough, strong and resistant to low temperatures in the winter season, and is resistant to moisture and is not subject to deformation under extreme conditions.
All these features are due to its indispensability, in the construction of buildings and structures that work with a high load, as well as for use in watered soils. In addition, this type of brick is used for laying the furnace.
Also very often used in practice hollow brick. It is used in the construction of smoke work, walls and parts of an underground structure.
In addition to hollow bricks, a porous hollow view is used in the construction. These species are very often used in the construction of walls of various buildings or structures.
Due to the fact that in this type of brick there are internal voids, it has good characteristics, namely: heat retention (an important condition in the construction of a building or structure in the future operation), as well as weight, which is much smaller than others in the classification of bricks.
Basic types of brick masonry
Professional builders, when building walls, use different types of brick masonry. After analyzing, you can understand that each has its application in construction. Let us consider each species in more detail.
This type is a monolithic structure. The width of this construction is equal to half the standard brick. The mechanism of laying of this type is carried out along the outer edge of the wall of the erected structure. Each received row of builders is called verst, and the fillings formed between them are scraps. When choosing a solid masonry, the bricks will be laid without the formation of various kinds of cracks and heaters. In this situation, the composition of the walls will be made only of brick and mortar. This type of installation is most often used in the construction of load-bearing walls, when the insulation work is done from the outside. Thermal insulation can be performed in other, different ways.
The solid appearance of the brick laying, along the dressing of the seams, can be single row or multi-row. But it is worth noting that the pillars and possible piers fit on the principle of three rows, no less. If the construction is carried out, which do not have heavy loads, then it is better to apply a brick fight in use. If the installation of a smoke hole is carried out by means of continuous laying, it is recommended to take a pre-burned brick. The existing seams near the channels must be treated with clay. When the brick is laid with a solid type, only solutions that are plastic in composition are used.
This type is used in construction, low-rise tasks. The main essence of this masonry is that two walls are built, half the width of the standard brick, which, as a rule, are parallel to each other. Use only whole bricks. Warming is carried out by special heat-insulating materials.
Lightweight masonry was introduced in the construction in order to erect walls thinner, but at the same time their thermal insulation property was preserved.
Quite often lightweight clutch used in the construction of structures with the presence of an existing internal insulation. Masonry is carried out only with the use of a warm solution. It adds any kind of sand, porous in its composition. This mixture - this is another opportunity to make the masonry thinner by increasing the heat resistance.
The walls can also be erected on the basis of a porous-hollow or hollow, as well as a ceramic brick. Lightweight view involves the expansion of existing masonry joints of brick on the entire surface of the facade of the building.
Masonry reinforced type is often used in construction for the purpose of erecting certain structures, which are very high loads. The armature itself is located in the seams, in a horizontal or vertical position. The thickness of the seams should be thicker than the diameter of the rod. There are different types of brick laying walls, based on reinforcement, for example, Gothic or Dutch. If the reinforcement is made transversely, then it is better to use a metal mesh with different shapes. To stack such a grid should not be very often, a sufficient distance will be every 3-5 rows of brick laying.
Reinforced masonry is, above all, a way to erect a stable and solid wall. In particular, when it is planned to build any structure with a sufficiently high load. The essence of all the work on the erection of reinforced masonry boils down to the fact that steel bars are laid in the existing seams. This material is not bad in its composition and very well adheres to the solution, due to this, the masonry will be monolithic. You can lay the reinforcement either along or across. After the existing rods are firmly fixed in the seams, they will take some of the load on their base. In addition, with the help of reinforced laying, you can realize absolutely any solutions that do not meet the general standards.
Basic schemes of laying bricks
To increase the strength of brickwork, it is necessary to carry out dressing of longitudinal, vertical, and also transverse joints. In all basic schemes and methods, not only whole bricks are used, but also some of its parts, halves or quarters. For the manufacture of non-standard bricks in the form of a hammer-pick. These incomplete in their form of bricks are always stacked inside the masonry, so that the whole side only looks outside the walls.
Longitudinal seams - this is the seams, located horizontally in the masonry. Bandaging of such seams is extremely important and necessary in order to evenly distribute all the load that can occur on the surface of the entire width of the wall. Also, bandaging does not allow the laying of bricks to separate into thinner, separate layers.
Bandaging is performed in rows that are laid out transversely to the direction of the main masonry. These series are usually called tychkovymi. Their laying is carried out at the rate of one knock on four-five rows of ordinary laying.
Cross and vertical joints are seams, located between bricks inside the entire masonry. Their bandaging is necessary to strengthen the wall, making it monolithic. Bandaging of the transverse seam is done with the help of spoon rows.
In addition, there are other options for building a house or a building made of bricks, in which the dressing of the transverse sutures is performed with bunching rows. In construction, the transverse sutures are often bandaged using both methods. But vertical seams separately, as a rule, are not tied up. Their ligation, with the correct clutch, is obtained automatically.
If the corners of the brick house are driven out ahead of the masonry of the walls, then any mistake made while performing work using the chosen methods of dressing can lead to cracks in the wall, regardless of which masonry method is performed.
Materials and appliances for masonry bricks
Depending on what function the walls will perform, full-bodied or hollow bricks are used. Clay or silicate bricks can also be used.
For the erection of brickwork, a cement, lime, and sometimes a combined version of a cement-lime mortar is used. You can prepare them both with your own hands, and buy them in building stores. By introducing a small amount of lime into the solution, or clay, it is possible to improve not only the plasticity of the composition, but also to ensure the strength of the solution.
Mix the components of the mixture in a dry state, manually or with a concrete mixer. After thorough mixing, water is gradually added to the dry mixture until a special concentration of the solution is reached, at which it will have sufficient plasticity, but it will retain its shape and will not spread.
To build the walls with your own hands, you will need a special tool for laying bricks:
- capacity in which the solution will be prepared. Well, if it's a concrete mixer;
- the container in which the solution will be transferred;
- line from kapron (implementation of fixing the boundaries of laid out brick row);
- building level;
- order, controlling the rows of brickwork;
- plumb line. A special device for laying bricks, which controls any deviation of the masonry from the vertical;
- gon. The device that controls the geometry of the corners of the building;
- a template for laying bricks, controlling the thickness of the joints;
Fulfillment and observance of all rules guarantees the long service and safety of any structure. And the brick walls erected by own hands become the real pride of any builder.
More details on how to properly build brick walls with their own hands, we learn in the next video
How to lay a facing brick
Scheme of Bavarian brickwork
How to lay a brick
Interior decoration of the walls in the dacha with their own hands